Inertial sensors

An Intertial Navigation System consists of Vertical Gyros (VG), Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS), GPS-Aided Inertial Navigation Systems (INS/GPS), Weapon Orientation Modules (WOM), miniature / sub-miniature orientation sensors (OS3D), and full body camera less wireless 3DSuit.  They continuously measure an object’s orientation, position, and velocity relative to a starting point without requiring any external references. The inertial sensors are used in mobile robots and on vehicles such as ships, aircraft, submarines, guided missiles and spacecraft.

The inertial measurement system typically includes three orthogonal rate-gyroscopes and three orthogonal accelerometers for measuring angular velocity and linear acceleration respectively. Gyroscopes measure the angular velocity of the sensor frame with respect to the inertial reference frame. With the help of the original orientation of the system in the inertial reference frame, the system’s current orientation is calculated. Accelerometers measure the linear acceleration of the moving vehicle in the sensor or body frame, but in directions that can only be measured relative to the moving system

With the recent advances in MEMS (Microelectromechanical System), smaller and lighter inertial sensors are being developed, which broadens the scope of applications to include areas such as human and animal motion capture.  The sensor is initially provided with its position and velocity along with the initial orientation. Thereafter, the inertial sensor computes its own updated position and velocity by integrating information received from the integrated motion sensors.